(Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition)
When to cite:
1) to provide key background information;
2) to support or dispute your thesis;
3) to offer critical definitions and data.
Cite the work of those individuals whose key ideas, theories, or research have directly influenced your work. Citation of an article implies that you have personally read the cited work.
Quoting and Paraphrasing
When quoting, always provide the author, year, and specific page citation or paragraph number for nonpaginated material.
1) If the quotation is fewer than 40 words use quotation marks.
2) If more than 40 words, display it in a freestanding block of text and omit the quotation marks.
a) Start the block quotation on a new line and indent the block.
b) If there are additional paragraphs within the quotation, indent the first line.
c) Double-space the entire paragraph.
d) At the end of the block, do citation.
Interpreting these results, Robbins et al. (2003) suggested that the “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns” (p. 541), contributing to an overall climate of negativity.
Interpreting these results, suggested that the “therapists in dropout cases may have inadvertently validated parental negativity about the adolescent without adequately responding to the adolescent’s needs or concerns” contributing to an overall climate of negativity. (Robbins et al., 2003, p. 541)
“Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior” (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives,” para. 4).
Others have contradicted this view:
Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event.
In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around item is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111-112)
In 1997, Purcell contradicted this view:
Co-presence….is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (pp. 111-112)
In general, a reference should contain the author name, date of publication, title of the work, and publication data.
Invert all author’s name; give surname and initials. If there are different authors with the same surname and first initial, the author’s full first name may be given in brackets:
Janet, P. [Paul]. (1876). La notion de la personalité. [The notion of personality].
Reveue Scientific, 10, 574-575.
Janet, P. [Pierre]. (1906). The pathogenesis of some impulsions. Journal of
Abnormal Psychology, 1, 1-17.
(Paul Janet, 1876)
(Pierre Janet, 1906)
Author, A. A. (1967). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Light, I. (2006). Deflecting immigration: Networks, markets, and regulations in
Los Angeles. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.) Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Retrieved from
Author, A. A. (2006). Title of work. doi:xxxxxxxx
Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (1986). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Periodicals include items published on a regular basis such as journals, magazines, newspapers, and newsletter.
Author, A. A., Author, B. B. & Author, C. C. (year). Title of artile. Title of Periodical, x(x),
Light, M. A. & Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in
the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law
Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8(1), 73-82.
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The
Washington Post, pp. A1, A4.
Technical and Research Reports:
Technical and research reports, like journal articles, usually cover original research but may or may not be peer reviewed.
Author, A. A. (1998). Title of work (Report No. xxx). Location: Publisher. Retrieved from
Agency name website: http://www.xxxx
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Natiional Institute of Health, National
Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for
schools (NIH Pubication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from